About Thyroid

Thyroid is a gland which deals with growth and metabolism. This is butterfly shaped gland in the front of neck. There are two lobes on either side of the neck. These two lobes are joined by a tissue in the middle called isthmus.  Thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which are located in the brain.

The thyroid gland secretes three hormones into the bloodstream:

  1. T4 (Thyroxine)
  2. T3 (Triiodothyronine)
  3. Calcitonin

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), produced by the hypothalamus travels to the pituitary gland via the connecting blood vessels. TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce TSH or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. TSH   in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, T4 and T3. T4 is converted to T3, which is the active hormone.

In addition to controlling energy utilisation by the cells in the body, thyroid hormones are also involved in a number of other bodily activities including:

  • Regulating body temperature
  • Controlling heart rate
  • Affecting weigh gain and weight loss
  • Cell turnover
  • Synthesis of proteins
  • Utilisation of glucose and much more.

Calcitonin is involved in bone metabolism by controlling the levels of calcium and phosphorus. Calcitonin works together with parathyroid hormone, produced by the parathyroid glands.

Problems with thyroid gland are classified into:

 

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